Biological process to genes

Query process ID GO:0048825
Process name The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the cotyledon over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The cotyledon is the modified leaf (seed leaf), found as part of the embryo in plant seeds. It is involved in either storage or absorption of food reserves. Dicotyledonous seeds contain two cotyledons, while monocotyledonous seeds contain only one. The cotyledons may appear above ground and show photosynthetic activity in the seedling.
Organism Arabidopsis thaliana

Click Gene ID to show a list of co-expressed genes.

ECC Gene ID Repr. ID Gene name Functional description O.I. H.G. Other DB
XAt1g12980837856ESR1 (ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION 1)Encodes an AP2/ERF protein, is expressed in a subdomain of meristem stem cells, in lateral organ anlagen, and transiently in the distal domain of organ primordia. It is a member of the ERF (ethylene response factor) subfamily B-1 of ERF/AP2 transcription factor family (ESR1). The protein contains one AP2 domain. There are 15 members in this subfamily including ATERF-3, ATERF-4, ATERF-7, and leafy petiole. Can confer cytokinin-independent shoot formation and causes severe meristem defects when overexpressed in Arabidopsis root explants. Involved in controlling embryogenesis and embryo patterning by interaction with PHAVOLUTA.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g23320838941TAR1 (TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED 1)Encodes a protein with similarity to the TAA1 trytophan aminotransferase involved in IAA biosynthesis. This gene appears to be expressed at a very low level during seedling development. Triple mutant analyses implicate this gene in embryonic development.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g24590839073DRNL (DORNROSCHEN-LIKE)Encodes a member of the ERF (ethylene response factor) subfamily B-1 of ERF/AP2 transcription factor family. The protein contains one AP2 domain. There are 15 members in this subfamily including ATERF-3, ATERF-4, ATERF-7, and LEAFY PETIOLE. This gene functions in the regeneration of shoots in tissue culture, probably through transcriptional regulation of CUC1. May also be involved in activation of the cell cycle via CycD1;1.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g53700841807WAG1 (WAG 1)The WAG1 and its homolog, WAG2 each encodes a protein-serine/threonine kinase that are nearly 70% identical to PsPK3 protein. All three together with CsPK3 belong to PsPK3-type kinases. At the N-terminus, all four possess a serine/threonine-rich domain. They are closely related to Arabidopsis kinases PINOID. wag1/wag2 double mutants exhibit a pronounced wavy root phenotype when grown vertically on agar plates (while wild-type plants develop wavy roots only on plates inclined to angles less than 90 degrees), indicating an overlapping role for WAG1 and WAG2 as suppressors of root waving. Simultaneous disruption of PID(AT2G34650) and its 3 closest homologs (PID2/AT2G26700, WAG1/AT1G53700, and WAG2/AT3G14370) abolishes the formation of cotyledons.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g64520842760RPN12a (Regulatory Particle non-ATPase 12a)F:peptidase activity;P:in 14 processes;C:proteasome complex, nucleus, proteasome regulatory particle, lid subcomplex, chloroplast envelope;MFOPO.I.H.G.
XAt1g70560843393TAA1 (TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS 1)TAA1 is involved in the shade-induced production of indole-3-pyruvate (IPA), a precursor to IAA, a biologically active auxin. It is also involved in regulating many aspects of plant growth and development from embryogenesis to flower formation and plays a role in ethylene-mediated signaling. This enzyme can catalyze the formation of IPA from L-tryptophan. Though L-Trp is expected to be the preferred substrate in vivo, TAA1 also acts as an aminotransferase using L-Phe, L-Tyr, L-Leu, L-Ala, L-Met, and L-Gln.O.I.H.G.
XAt2g26700817211PID2 (PINOID2)Encodes PID2, a homolog of PID. Simultaneous disruption of PID(AT2G34650) and its 3 closest homologs (PID2/AT2G26700, WAG1/AT1G53700, and WAG2/AT3G14370) abolishes the formation of cotyledons.O.I.H.G.
XAt2g32370817798HDG3 (HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS 3)Encodes a homeobox-leucine zipper family protein belonging to the HD-ZIP IV family. Together with ATML1 and PDF2, it is involved in cotyledon development.O.I.H.G.
XAt2g34650818030PID (PINOID)Encodes a protein serine/threonine kinase that may act as a positive regulator of cellular auxin efflux, as a a binary switch for PIN polarity, and as a negative regulator of auxin signaling. Recessive mutants exhibit similar phenotypes as pin-formed mutants in flowers and inflorescence but distinct phenotypes in cotyledons and leaves. Expressed in the vascular tissue proximal to root and shoot meristems, shoot apex, and embryos. Expression is induced by auxin. Overexpression of the gene results in phenotypes in the root and shoot similar to those found in auxin-insensitive mutants. The protein physically interacts with TCH3 (TOUCH3) and PID-BINDING PROTEIN 1 (PBP1), a previously uncharacterized protein containing putative EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. Acts together with ENP (ENHANCER OF PINOID) to instruct precursor cells to elaborate cotyledons in the transition stage embryo. Interacts with PDK1. PID autophosphorylation is required for the ability of PID to phosphorylate an exogenous substrate. PID activation loop is required for PDK1-dependent PID phosphorylation and requires the PIF domain. Negative regulator of root hair growth. PID kinase activity is critical for the inhibition of root hair growth and for maintaining the proper subcellular localization of PID.O.I.H.G.
XAt2g46310819239CRF5 (CYTOKININ RESPONSE FACTOR 5)CRF5 encodes one of the six cytokinin response factors. It is transcriptionally upregulated in response to cytokinin. CRF5 belongs to the AP2/ERF superfamily of the transcriptional factors. CRF proteins rapidly relocalize to the nucleus in response to cytokinin. Analysis of loos-of-function mutants revealed that the CRFs function redundantly to regulate the development of embryos, cotyledons and leaves.O.I.H.G.
XAt3g14370820658WAG2The WAG2 and its homolog, WAG1 each encodes protein-serine/threonine kinase that are nearly 70% identical to PsPK3 protein. All three together with CsPK3 belong to PsPK3-type kinases. At the N-terminus, all four possess a serine/threonine-rich domain. They are closely related to Arabidopsis kinases PINOID. wag1/wag2 double mutants exhibit a pronounced wavy root phenotype when grown vertically on agar plates (while wild-type plants develop wavy roots only on plates inclined to angles less than 90 degrees), indicating an overlapping role for WAG1 and WAG2 as suppressors of root waving. Simultaneous disruption of PID(AT2G34650) and its 3 closest homologs (PID2/AT2G26700, WAG1/AT1G53700, and WAG2/AT3G14370) abolishes the formation of cotyledons.O.I.H.G.
XAt3g54180824585CDKB1Arabidopsis homolog of yeast cdc2, a protein kinase (cyclin-dependent kinase) that plays a central role in control of the mitotic cell cycle.O.I.H.G.
XAt3g61630825336CRF6 (CYTOKININ RESPONSE FACTOR 6)CRF6 encodes one of the six cytokinin response factors. CRF5 belongs to the AP2/ERF superfamily of the transcriptional factors. CRF proteins rapidly relocalize to the nucleus in response to cytokinin. Analysis of loos-of-function mutants revealed that the CRFs function redundantly to regulate the development of embryos, cotyledons and leaves.O.I.H.G.
XAt4g04890825828PDF2 (PROTODERMAL FACTOR 2)Encodes a homeodomain protein that is expressed in the LI layer of the vegetative, floral and inflorescence meristems. Binds to the L1 box promoter element which is required in some proteins for L1 specific expression.O.I.H.G.
XAt4g11140826715CRF1 (CYTOKININ RESPONSE FACTOR 1)encodes a member of the ERF (ethylene response factor) subfamily B-5 of ERF/AP2 transcription factor family. The protein contains one AP2 domain. There are 7 members in this subfamily. Also named as CRF1 (cytokinin response factor 1).O.I.H.G.
XAt4g15900827272PRL1 (PLEIOTROPIC REGULATORY LOCUS 1)Mutations confer hypersensitivity to glucose and sucrose and augments sensitivity to cytokinin, ethylene, ABA and auxin. Encodes a nuclear WD40 protein that is imported into the nucleus. Essential for plant innate immunity. Interacts with MOS4 and AtCDC5. It is also predicted to have two DWD motifs. It can bind to DDB1a in Y2H assays, and DDB1b in co-IP assays, and may be involved in the formation of a CUL4-based E3 ubiquitin ligase, and may affect the stability of AKIN10.O.I.H.G.
XAt4g21750828263ATML1 (MERISTEM LAYER 1)Encodes a homeobox protein similar to GL2. It is expressed in both the apical and basal daughter cells of the zygote as well as their progeny. Expression is detected starting the two-celled stage of embryo development and is later restricted to the outermost, epidermal cell layer from its inception. Its promoter is highly modular with each region contributing to specific aspects of the gene's spatial and temporal expression. Double mutant analysis with PDF2, another L1-specific gene, suggests that their functions are partially redundant and the absence of both of the genes result in abnormal shoot development.O.I.H.G.
XAt4g23750828475CRF2 (CYTOKININ RESPONSE FACTOR 2)encodes a member of the ERF (ethylene response factor) subfamily B-5 of ERF/AP2 transcription factor family. The protein contains one AP2 domain. There are 7 members in this subfamily.O.I.H.G.
XAt4g24670828569TAR2 (TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED 2)Encodes a protein with similarity to the TAA1 trytophan aminotransferase involved in IAA biosynthesis. Double mutant analyses suggest that this protein is involved in regulating many aspects of plant growth and development from embryogenesis to flower formation and plays a role in ethylene-mediated signaling.O.I.H.G.
XAt4g31820829311ENP (ENHANCER OF PINOID)A member of the NPY family genes (NPY1/AT4G31820, NPY2/AT2G14820, NPY3/AT5G67440, NPY4/AT2G23050, NPY5/AT4G37590). Encodes a protein with similarity to NHP3. Contains BTB/POZ domain. Promoter region has canonical auxin response element binding site and Wus binding site. Co-localizes to the late endosome with PID. Regulates cotyledon development through control of PIN1 polarity in concert with PID. Also involved in sepal and gynoecia development.O.I.H.G.
XAt4g32540829389YUC1 (YUCCA 1)Mutant has elevated levels of free IAA in dominant mutant allele; Flavin Monooxygenase-Like Enzyme; Auxin BiosynthesisO.I.H.G.
XAt5g11320831003YUC4 (YUCCA4)Belongs to the YUC gene family. Encodes a predicted flavin monooxygenase YUC4 involved in auxin biosynthesis and plant development.O.I.H.G.
XAt5g45980834638WOX8 (WUSCHEL RELATED HOMEOBOX 8)Arabidopsis thaliana WOX8 protein. Contains similarity to homeodomain transcription factor. Positively regulates early embryonic growth.O.I.H.G.
XAt5g46210834663CUL4 (CULLIN4)Arabidopsis CULLIN4 (CUL4) forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase with the CDD complex and a common catalytic subunit RBX1 in mediating light control of development. This CUL4-based E3 ligase is essential for the repression of photomorphogenesis. The partial loss of CUL4 function resulted in a constitutive photomorphogenic phenotype with respect to morphogenesis and light-regulated gene expression. CUL4 exhibits a synergistic genetic interaction with COP10 and DET1.O.I.H.G.
XAt5g53290835410CRF3 (CYTOKININ RESPONSE FACTOR 3)encodes a member of the ERF (ethylene response factor) subfamily B-5 of ERF/AP2 transcription factor family. The protein contains one AP2 domain. There are 7 members in this subfamily.O.I.H.G.
XAt5g59340836053WOX2 (WUSCHEL RELATED HOMEOBOX 2)Encodes a WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene family member with 65 amino acids in its homeodomain. Proteins in this family contain a sequence of eight residues (TLPLFPMH) downstream of the homeodomain called the WUS box. WOX2 has a putative Zinc finger domain downstream of the homeodomain. Transcripts are expressed in the egg cell, the zygote and the apical cell lineage and are reduced in met3-1 early embryos. This gene is necessary for cell divisions that form the apical embryo domain.O.I.H.G.



The upper GO terms

Process ID Gene number Process name
GO:00097930The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the embryo over time, from zygote formation to the end of seed dormancy. An example of this process is found in Arabidopsis thaliana.
GO:00488278The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a phyllome over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A phyllome is a collective term for all the different types of leaves appearing on plants.



The lower GO terms

Process ID Gene number Process name
GO:00488261The process by which the anatomical structures of the cotyledon are generated and organized. Morphogenesis pertains to the creation of form. The cotyledon is the modified leaf (seed leaf), found as part of the embryo in plant seeds. It is involved in either storage or absorption of food reserves. Dicotyledonous seeds contain two cotyledons, while monocotyledonous seeds contain only one. The cotyledons may appear above ground and show photosynthetic activity in the seedling.





Comparison with co-expressed genes



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