Biological process to genes

Query process ID GO:0048364
Process name The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the root over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The root is the water- and mineral-absorbing part of a plant which is usually underground, does not bear leaves, tends to grow downwards and is typically derived from the radicle of the embryo.
Organism Arabidopsis thaliana

Click Gene ID to show a list of co-expressed genes.

ECC Gene ID Repr. ID Gene name Functional description O.I. H.G. Other DB
XAt1g01950839306armadillo/beta-catenin repeat family protein / kinesin motor family proteinEncodes a member of the armadillo/beta-catenin repeat kinesin motor family. Mutants have twisted roots due to abnormal cell file rotation; the phenotype is dependent on microtubules.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g04550839495IAA12 (AUXIN-INDUCED PROTEIN 12)IAA12/BDL plays a role in auxin-mediated processes of apical-basal patterning in the embryo. bdl mutants lack a primary root meristemO.I.H.G.
XAt1g056308370695PTASE13Encodes an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase with phosphatase activity toward only Ins(1,4,5)P3. Induced in response to ABA and wounding treatments. Expressed in young seedlings and flowers, while no transcripts were detectable in maturated roots, stems, and rosette leaves Modulates the development of cotyledon veins through its regulation of auxin homeostasis. Involved in blue light light–stimulated increase in cytosolic calcium ion.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g10130837550ECA3 (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM-TYPE CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASE 3)Encodes a golgi localized P2A-type Ca2+ ATPase involved in Mn nutrition and homeostasis.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g13290837889DOT5 (DEFECTIVELY ORGANIZED TRIBUTARIES 5)Encodes a putative zinc finger protein (C2H2 family, type IIIA, subclass A1d) that has a WIP domain. Seedlings with mutations in DOT5 have a misaligned venation defect in their leaves and cotyledons. Additional developmental abnormalities, such as elongated petioles and aberrant phyllotaxy suggest that DOT5 is required for normal shoot and root development.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g17110838281UBP15 (UBIQUITIN-SPECIFIC PROTEASE 15)Encodes a ubiquitin-specific protease, and its activity has been confirmed in an in vitro assay. ubp15 mutants have defects in cell proliferation, and the associated processes of leaf, root, stem, flower, and silique development. UBP15 can be found in the nucleus and cytoplasm in transient assays. Though UBP15 is expressed in many tissues, UBP15 transcript levels are higher in rosette leaves and inflorescences than in other parts of the plant.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g19850838573MP (MONOPTEROS)Encodes a transcription factor (IAA24) mediating embryo axis formation and vascular development. Similar to AUXIN RESPONSIVE FACTOR 1 (ARF1) shown to bind to auxin responsive elements (AREs), and to the maize transcriptional activator VIVIPAROUS 1( VP1). In situ hybridization shows expression in provascular tissue of embryos, the emerging shoot primordia, then is restricted to provascular tissue, and in the root central vascular cylinder.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g23080838916PIN7 (PIN-FORMED 7)Encodes a novel component of auxin efflux that is located apically in the basal cell and is involved during embryogenesis in setting up the apical-basal axis in the embryo. It is also involved in pattern specification during root development. In roots, it is expressed at lateral and basal membranes of provascular cells in the meristem and elongation zone, whereas in the columella cells it coincides with the PIN3 domain. Plasma membrane-localized PIN proteins mediate a saturable efflux of auxin. PINs mediate auxin efflux from mammalian and yeast cells without needing additional plant-specific factors. The action of PINs in auxin efflux is distinct from PGPs, rate-limiting, specific to auxins and sensitive to auxin transport inhibitors. PINs are directly involved of in catalyzing cellular auxin efflux.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g31880840078BRX (BREVIS RADIX)Belongs to five-member BRX gene family. Arabidopsis BRX genes share high levels of similarity among each others, with several conserved domains. The most distinct is BRX domain - highly conserved in all BRX genes among distantly related species. This protein-protein interaction domain is required and sufficient for BRX activity. BRX encodes a key regulator of cell proliferation and elongation in the root, which has been implicated in the brassinosteroid (BR) pathway as well as regulation of auxin-responsive gene expression. Also involved in cytokinin-mediated inhibition of lateral root initiation. A loss-of-function allele, named brx-2 in Rodrigues et al. (2009) Plant Physiol. but changed to brx-3 to resolve nomenclature conflict (Li et al. Planta 2009:229(3):593-603), shows enhanced response to ABA-mediated inhibition of root growth.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g31930840083XLG3 (extra-large GTP-binding protein 3)Encodes XLG3 (extra-large G protein 3) that shows significant similarity to the G protein alpha subunit in its C terminal region. Involved in the regulation of root morphological and growth responses.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g36160840521ACC1 (ACETYL-COENZYME A CARBOXYLASE 1)Encodes acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Mutant displays uncoordinated cell divisions which are enhanced by cytokinins. Mutant also has aberrant organization of the apical region in the embryo and abnormal root and shoot development. Essential for very long chain fatty acid elongation.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g44900841056ATP binding / DNA binding / DNA-dependent ATPaseF:DNA-dependent ATPase activity, DNA binding, ATP binding;P:DNA replication, DNA replication initiation;C:nucleus, chloroplast;MOBFPAVO.I.H.G.
XAt1g47485841156-Encodes CEP1, a 15-amino-acid peptide, which is mainly expressed in the lateral root primordia. When overexpressed or externally applied, CEP1 arrests root growth. CEP1 is a candidate for a novel peptide plant hormone.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g48630841284RACK1B_AT (RECEPTOR FOR ACTIVATED C KINASE 1 B)Encodes a protein with similarity to mammalian RACKs. RACKs function to shuttle activated protein kinase C to different subcellular sites and may also function as a scaffold through physical interactions with other proteins. RACK1B has no phenotype on its own and probably acts redundantly with RACK1A and RACK1C.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g48920841314ATNUC-L1Encodes the predominant form of the two nucleolin proteins found in Arabidopsis. This protein is involved in rRNA processing, ribosome biosynthesis, and vascular pattern formation. PARL1 localizes to the nucleolus and parl1 mutants accumulate elevated levels of the unspliced 35S pre-rRNA. parl1 mutants also have defects in cotyledon, leaf, sepal, and petal vein patterning and have reduced stature, reduced fertility, increased bushiness, and reduced root length. The sugar-induced expression of ribosome proteins is also reduced in parl1 mutants.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g51190841542PLT2 (PLETHORA 2)Encodes a member of the AINTEGUMENTA-like (AIL) subclass of the AP2/EREBP family of transcription factors and is essential for quiescent center (QC) specification and stem cell activity. It is a key effector for establishment of the stem cell niche during embryonic pattern formation. It is transcribed in response to auxin accumulation and is dependent on auxin response transcription factors.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g53330841768pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing proteinencodes a member of the pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) gene family. T-DNA insertion mutants had a complex phenotypic expression, ranging from embryo lethal to seedling lethal, to just subtle changes.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g53700841807WAG1 (WAG 1)The WAG1 and its homolog, WAG2 each encodes a protein-serine/threonine kinase that are nearly 70% identical to PsPK3 protein. All three together with CsPK3 belong to PsPK3-type kinases. At the N-terminus, all four possess a serine/threonine-rich domain. They are closely related to Arabidopsis kinases PINOID. wag1/wag2 double mutants exhibit a pronounced wavy root phenotype when grown vertically on agar plates (while wild-type plants develop wavy roots only on plates inclined to angles less than 90 degrees), indicating an overlapping role for WAG1 and WAG2 as suppressors of root waving. Simultaneous disruption of PID(AT2G34650) and its 3 closest homologs (PID2/AT2G26700, WAG1/AT1G53700, and WAG2/AT3G14370) abolishes the formation of cotyledons.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g55020841944LOX1lipoxygenase, a defense gene conferring resistance Xanthomonas campestrisO.I.H.G.
XAt1g55180841961PLDEPSILON (PHOSPHOLIPASE D ALPHA 4)member of C2-PLD. subfamily Represents a phospholipase D (PLD) gene with four exons, hence it is a member of the alpha class. Its amino acid sequence is quite different from other PLDs, therefore it might possess unique structural and/or catalytic properties.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g59820842275ALA3 (Aminophospholipid ATPase3)Encodes a phospholipid translocase. Involved in secretory vesicle formation from trans-Golgi in peripheral columella cells at the root tip. Mutants have short primary roots and grow slower.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g62830842582LDL1 (LSD1-LIKE1)Encodes a homolog of human Lysine-Specific Demethylase1. Involved in H3K4 methylation of target genes including the flowering time loci FLC and FWA. Located in nucleus. Negatively regulates root elongation. Involved in repression of LRP1 via histone deacetylation.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g70560843393TAA1 (TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS 1)TAA1 is involved in the shade-induced production of indole-3-pyruvate (IPA), a precursor to IAA, a biologically active auxin. It is also involved in regulating many aspects of plant growth and development from embryogenesis to flower formation and plays a role in ethylene-mediated signaling. This enzyme can catalyze the formation of IPA from L-tryptophan. Though L-Trp is expected to be the preferred substrate in vivo, TAA1 also acts as an aminotransferase using L-Phe, L-Tyr, L-Leu, L-Ala, L-Met, and L-Gln.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g70940843432PIN3 (PIN-FORMED 3)A regulator of auxin efflux and involved in differential growth. PIN3 is expressed in gravity-sensing tissues, with PIN3 protein accumulating predominantly at the lateral cell surface. PIN3 localizes to the plasma membrane and to vesicles. In roots, PIN3 is expressed without pronounced polarity in tiers two and three of the columella cells, at the basal side of vascular cells, and to the lateral side of pericycle cells of the elongation zone. PIN3 overexpression inhibits root cell growth. Protein phosphorylation plays a role in PIN3 trafficking to the plasma membrane.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g71692843497AGL12 (AGAMOUS-LIKE 12)Encodes a member of the MADS box family of transcription factors. Involved in root cell differentiation and flowering time. Loss of function mutations have abnormal cellular differentiation in the roots and are late flowering. AGL12 along with AGL14, and AGL17 is preferentially expressed in root tissues and represent the only characterized MADS box genes expressed in roots.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g73590843693PIN1 (PIN-FORMED 1)Encodes an auxin efflux carrier involved in shoot and root development. It is involved in the maintenance of embryonic auxin gradients. Loss of function severely affects organ initiation, pin1 mutants are characterised by an inflorescence meristem that does not initiate any flowers, resulting in the formation of a naked inflorescence stem. PIN1 is involved in the determination of leaf shape by actively promoting development of leaf margin serrations. In roots, the protein mainly resides at the basal end of the vascular cells, but weak signals can be detected in the epidermis and the cortex. Expression levels and polarity of this auxin efflux carrier change during primordium development suggesting that cycles of auxin build-up and depletion accompany, and may direct, different stages of primordium development. PIN1 action on plant development does not strictly require function of PGP1 and PGP19 proteins.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g78240844160TSD2 (TUMOROUS SHOOT DEVELOPMENT 2)Encodes TSD2 (TUMOROUS SHOOT DEVELOPMENT2), a putative methyltransferase with an essential role in cell adhesion and coordinated plant development.O.I.H.G.
XAt2g01420814670PIN4 (PIN-FORMED 4)Encodes a putative auxin efflux carrier that is localized in developing and mature root meristems. It is involved in the maintenance of embryonic auxin gradients. A role for AtPIN4 in generating a sink for auxin below the quiescent center of the root meristem that is essential for auxin distribution and patterning is proposed. In the root, PIN4 is detected around the quiescent center and cells surrounding it, and localizes basally in provascular cells. PIN4 expression is upregulated in brassinosteroid-insensitive mutant (PMID 16141452).O.I.H.G.
XAt2g19560816475EER5 (ENHANCED ETHYLENE RESPONSE 5)encodes a protein with a PAM domain involved in ethylene signaling. eer5 mutants show ethylene hypersensitivity in relation to hypocotyl elongation. EER5 interacts with EIN2 and with COP9 in Y2H assays. EIN3 protein levels are the same in WT and eer5-1 mutants. EER5 may be involved in promoting a dampening of the ethylene response.O.I.H.G.
XAt2g20000816519HBT (HOBBIT)Required for cell division and cell differentiation in meristems. Encodes a homolog of the CDC27 subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). Unlike other CDC27 homologs in Arabidopsis, its transcription is cell cycle regulated. Strong hbt mutants give rise to seedlings that lack an anatomically recognizable quiescent center and differentiated columella root cap cells, the cell types derived from the wild-type hypophysis. Furthermore, they have no mitotically active root meristem and lack a differentiated lateral root cap.O.I.H.G.
XAt2g25170817055PKL (PICKLE)Encodes a SWI/SWF nuclear-localized chromatin remodeling factor of the CHD3 group. Involved in post-germination repression of embryonic development. Acts with GA to establish repression of embryonic genes upon germination. Protein preferentially accumulates in differentiating tissues. Loss of function alleles are associated with expression of embryonic traits in adult plants and derepression of embryonic genes such as PHEROS1. Is an extragenic suppressor of slr2 (SSL2). Mutations in PKL (SSL2) restores lateral root formation in the slr2 mutant slr-1. It was proposed that PKL/SSL2-mediated chromatin remodeling negatively regulates auxin-mediated LR formation in Arabidopsis.O.I.H.G.
XAt2g27230817265LHW (LONESOME HIGHWAY)Encodes a nuclear-localized transcriptional activator with weak sequence similarity to basic helix-loop-helix(bHLH)-domain proteins. It promotes the production of stele cells in root meristems and is required to establish and maintain the normal vascular cell number and pattern in primary and lateral roots.O.I.H.G.
XAt2g37250818302ADK (ADENOSINE KINASE)encodes adenylate kinase that is located in the chloroplast involved in the coordination of metabolism and growthO.I.H.G.
XAt2g39800818566P5CS1 (DELTA1-PYRROLINE-5-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHASE 1)encodes a delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase that catalyzes the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of proline. Gene is expressed in reproductive organs and tissues under non-stress conditions but in the whole plant under water-limiting condition. Expression is also induced by abscisic acid and salt stress in a light-dependent manner. P5CS1 appears to be involved in salt stress responses related to proline accumulation, including protection from reactive oxidative species. P5CS1 appears to be present in different cells and/or different subcellular locations from P5CS2 in a tissue-dependent manner.O.I.H.G.
XAt2g46990819313IAA20 (INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE 20)Encodes a member of the Aux/IAA family of proteins implicated in auxin signaling. IAA20 lacks the conserved degron (domain II) found in many family members, and IAA20 fusion proteins are stable in Arabidopsis seedlings. IAA20 transcripts are induced by auxin treatment, and overexpression of IAA20 leads to defects in gravitropism, root development, root meristem maintenance, etiolation, and cotyledon vascular development.O.I.H.G.
XAt3g02260820398BIG (BIG)Calossin-like protein required for polar auxin transportO.I.H.G.
XAt3g05040819666HST (HASTY)Encodes member of importin/exportin family. Involved in timing of shoot maturation. Involved in miRNA transport. Mutants flower early and have small, curled leaves and reduced abundance of certain miRNA species.O.I.H.G.
XAt3g05630819730PLDP2Encodes a member of the PXPH-PLD subfamily of phospholipase D proteins. Regulates vesicle trafficking. Required for auxin transport and distribution and hence auxin responses. This subfamily is novel structurally different from the majority of plant PLDs by having phox homology (PX) and pleckstrin homology (PH) domains. Involved regulating root development in response to nutrient limitation. Plays a major role in phosphatidic acid production during phosphate deprivation. Induced upon Pi starvation in both shoots and roots. Involved in hydrolyzing phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine to produce diacylglycerol for digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthesis and free Pi to sustain other Pi-requiring processes. Does not appear to be involved in root hair patterning.O.I.H.G.
XAt3g14370820658WAG2The WAG2 and its homolog, WAG1 each encodes protein-serine/threonine kinase that are nearly 70% identical to PsPK3 protein. All three together with CsPK3 belong to PsPK3-type kinases. At the N-terminus, all four possess a serine/threonine-rich domain. They are closely related to Arabidopsis kinases PINOID. wag1/wag2 double mutants exhibit a pronounced wavy root phenotype when grown vertically on agar plates (while wild-type plants develop wavy roots only on plates inclined to angles less than 90 degrees), indicating an overlapping role for WAG1 and WAG2 as suppressors of root waving. Simultaneous disruption of PID(AT2G34650) and its 3 closest homologs (PID2/AT2G26700, WAG1/AT1G53700, and WAG2/AT3G14370) abolishes the formation of cotyledons.O.I.H.G.
XAt3g16640820916TCTP (TRANSLATIONALLY CONTROLLED TUMOR PROTEIN)Encodes a protein homologous to translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) from Drosophila. In flies, TCTP functions guanine nucleotide exchange factor in the TOR signaling pathway. TCTP is expressed throughout the plant with highest levels seen in meristematic regions of the shoot and root. Loss of function alleles are not transmitted through the male gametophyte due to defects in pollen tube growth. Hypomorphs, generated through RNAi, are dwarf and have smaller cells. These plants also have defects in lateral and primary root growth as well as root hair growth. The phenotypes are similar to TOR mutants suggesting that TCTP functions in the is pathway in Arabidopsis as well.O.I.H.G.
XAt3g16785820932PLDP1 (PHOSPHOLIPASE D P1)Encodes a member of the PXPH-PLD subfamily of phospholipase D proteins. This subfamily is novel structurally different from the majority of plant PLDs by having phox homology (PX) and pleckstrin homology (PH) domains. Involved regulating root development in response to nutrient limitation. Does not appear to be involved in root hair patterning. Not induced upon Pi starvation.O.I.H.G.
XAt3g17600821026IAA31 (INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE 31)Encodes a member of the Aux/IAA family of proteins implicated in auxin signaling. IAA31 shares several residues with the conserved domain II region, believed to act as a degron in many of the rapidly degraded Aux/IAA family members. An IAA31 fusion protein is quite long-lived, but can be degraded more rapidly in the presence of auxin. Unlike many other family members, IAA31 transcript levels do not rise in response to auxin. Nevertheless, overexpression of IAA31 leads to defects in auxin-related processes such as gravitropism, root development, shoot development, and cotyledon vascular development.O.I.H.G.
XAt3g18130821338RACK1C_AT (RECEPTOR FOR ACTIVATED C KINASE 1 C)Encodes a protein with similarity to mammalian RACKs. RACKs function to shuttle activated protein kinase C to different subcellular sites and may also function as a scaffold through physical interactions with other proteins. RACK1C has no phenotype on its own and probably acts redundantly with RACK1A and RACK1B.O.I.H.G.
XAt3g18485821378ILR2 (IAA-LEUCINE RESISTANT 2)Encodes a novel protein with no predicted membrane-spanning domains that is polymorphic among Arabidopsis accessions. The protein may modulate a metal transporter. Mutants are resistant to IAA-Leu, IAA-Phe, and the divalent metals cobalt and manganese but remain sensitive to free IAA; they are defective in lateral root formation and primary root elongation.O.I.H.G.
XAt3g20840821632PLT1 (PLETHORA 1)Encodes a member of the AINTEGUMENTA-like (AIL) subclass of the AP2/EREBP family of transcription factors and is essential for quiescent center (QC) specification and stem cell activity. It is a key effector for establishment of the stem cell niche during embryonic pattern formation. It is transcribed in response to auxin accumulation and is dependent on auxin response transcription factors.O.I.H.G.
XAt3g22400821808LOX5F:electron carrier activity, oxidoreductase activity, acting on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen, incorporation of two atoms of oxygen, lipoxygenase activity, iron ion binding, metal ion binding;P:root development;C:chloroplast;PMBFOO.I.H.G.
XAt3g28860822519ABCB19Belongs to the family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Also known as AtMDR11 and PGP19. Possibly regulates auxin-dependent responses by influencing basipetal auxin transport in the root. Acts upstream of phyA in regulating hypocotyl elongation and gravitropic response. Exerts nonredundant, partially overlapping functions with the ABC transporter encoded by AtPGP1.O.I.H.G.
XAt3g54010824568PAS1 (PASTICCINO 1)Immunophilin-like protein similar to the p59 FK506-binding protein (FKBP52). Shows rotamase activity and contains an FKBP-like domain and three tetratricopeptide repeat units. Members of this class of mutation show ectopic cell proliferation in cotyledons. Gene may be alternatively spliced.O.I.H.G.
XAt3g54720824637AMP1 (ALTERED MERISTEM PROGRAM 1)Encodes glutamate carboxypeptidase. Various alleles show-increased cotyledon number and rate of leaf initiation, show transformation of leaves to cotyledons, altered flowering time and photomorphogenesis and an increased level of cytokinin biosynthesis. Involved in ethylene enhanced hypocotyl elongation in the light. Strong genetic interaction between TGH and AMP1.O.I.H.G.
XAt3g62100825383IAA30 (INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE 30)Encodes a member of the Aux/IAA family of proteins implicated in auxin signaling. IAA30 lacks the conserved degron (domain II) found in many family members. IAA30 transcripts are induced by auxin treatment and accumulate preferentially in the quiescent center cells of the root meristem. Overexpression of IAA30 leads to defects in gravitropism, root development, root meristem maintenance, and cotyledon vascular development.O.I.H.G.
XAt4g00730828022ANL2 (ANTHOCYANINLESS 2)Encodes a homeodomain protein of the HD-GLABRA2 group. Involved in the accumulation of anthocyanin and in root developmentO.I.H.G.
XAt4g14850827142LOI1 (lovastatin insensitive 1)Encodes a pentatricopeptide (PPR) protein that binds single-stranded RNA. The N-terminal portion of the protein can localize to the mitochondria. Mutations in this gene make plants less sensitive to inhibitors of the MEP and MVA pathways of isoprenoid biosynthesis and increase the activity of HMG CoA reductase.O.I.H.G.
XAt4g15900827272PRL1 (PLEIOTROPIC REGULATORY LOCUS 1)Mutations confer hypersensitivity to glucose and sucrose and augments sensitivity to cytokinin, ethylene, ABA and auxin. Encodes a nuclear WD40 protein that is imported into the nucleus. Essential for plant innate immunity. Interacts with MOS4 and AtCDC5. It is also predicted to have two DWD motifs. It can bind to DDB1a in Y2H assays, and DDB1b in co-IP assays, and may be involved in the formation of a CUL4-based E3 ubiquitin ligase, and may affect the stability of AKIN10.O.I.H.G.
XAt4g16780827384ATHB-2 (ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX PROTEIN 2)Encodes a homeodomain-leucine zipper protein that is rapidly and strongly induced by changes in the ratio of red to far-red light. It is also involved in cell expansion and cell proliferation and in the response to auxin.O.I.H.G.
XAt4g24560828558UBP16 (UBIQUITIN-SPECIFIC PROTEASE 16)Encodes a ubiquitin-specific protease. There is no evidence for a phenotype in ubp16-1 mutants, however, double mutant analysis with ubp15 mutants reveals a role for UBP16 in plant development and cell proliferation.O.I.H.G.
XAt4g29040829025RPT2a (regulatory particle AAA-ATPase 2a)26S proteasome AAA-ATPase subunit RPT2a (RPT2a) mRNA,O.I.H.G.
XAt4g30340829157ATDGK7 (Diacylglycerol kinase 7)encodes a diacylglycerol kinase. Applying a specific diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor to the growth media resulted in reduced root elongation and plant growth. Gene is expressed throughout the plant but is strongest in flowers and young seedlings.O.I.H.G.
XAt4g34460829597AGB1 (GTP BINDING PROTEIN BETA 1)Encodes the heterotrimeric G-protein beta subunit and is involved in organ shape. A significant fraction of the protein is found in the ER. Mutants carrying null alleles express similar fruit phenotypes, as seen in er plants, but differ from er in that the stem is only slightly shorter than that in the wild type, the pedicel is slightly longer than that in the wild type, and the leaves are rounder than those in er mutants. Gene is expressed in all tissues examined, with highest expression level found in siliques. It is involved in resistance to Plectosphaerella cucumerina. The predicted protein has two DWD motifs. It can bind to DDB1a in Y2H assays and may be involved in the formation of a CUL4-based E3 ubiquitin ligaseO.I.H.G.
XAt4g394033770598PLS (POLARIS)Encodes a 36 amino acid polypeptide that is necessary for correct responses to cytokinins and auxins, correct cell expansion in the root, and for vascular patterning in the leaf. Mutation of PLS results in an enhanced ethylene-response phenotype, defective auxin transport and homeostasis, and altered microtubule sensitivity to inhibitors.O.I.H.G.
XAt5g01490831754CAX4 (CATION EXCHANGER 4)Encodes a cation/proton antiporter, a member of Low affinity calcium antiporter CAX2 family.O.I.H.G.
XAt5g03150831919JKD (JACKDAW)JKD is a nuclear-localized putative transcription factor with three zinc finger domains. jkd mutants show a number of root patterning defects including ectopic periclinal divisions in the cortex, increased cell numbers in the cortical and epidermal layers, a disrupted QC marker expression pattern, and disorganized QC and columella cells. jkd mutants also have a reduced number of meristematic cells in their roots. JKD can interact with the SCR and SHR proteins implicated in root patterning, as well as another zinc finger transcription factor, MAGPIE. All of these interactions require the first zinc finger in JKD according to a Y2H assay. There are also transcriptional interactions among these proteins. The initiation of JKD transcription does not appear to depend on SCR and SHR, but later expression in the post-embryonic QC cells and ground tissue initials is reduced in scr and shr mutants. JKD also appears to be required for SCR transcription beginning in the embryo. There is also some evidence that JKD plays a role in promoting the movement of SHR into the nucleus, particularly in QC cells, but this may be indirect.O.I.H.G.
XAt5g03540831809ATEXO70A1 (exocyst subunit EXO70 family protein A1)AtEXO70A1 is a member of EXO70 gene family, putative exocyst subunits, conserved in land plants. Arabidopsis thaliana contains 23 putative EXO70 genes, which can be classified into nine clusters on the phylogenetic treeO.I.H.G.
XAt5g06140830501SNX1 (SORTING NEXIN 1)Homolog of yeast retromer subunit VPS5. Part of a retromer-like protein complex involved in endosome to lysosome protein transport. In roots it co-localizes with the PIN2 auxin efflux carrier. Involved in endocytic sorting of membrane proteins including PIN2, BOR1 and BRI1.O.I.H.G.
XAt5g09810830841ACT7 (ACTIN 7)Member of Actin gene family.Mutants are defective in germination and root growth.O.I.H.G.
XAt5g10510830915AIL6 (AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE 6)Encodes an AP2-domain transcription factor involved in root stem cell identity and root development.O.I.H.G.
XAt5g12330831108LRP1 (LATERAL ROOT PRIMORDIUM 1)A member of SHI gene family. Arabidopsis thaliana has ten members that encode proteins with a RING finger-like zinc finger motif. Despite being highly divergent in sequence, many of the SHI-related genes are partially redundant in function and synergistically promote gynoecium, stamen and leaf development in Arabidopsis. Expressed in lateral root primordia and induced by auxin. SWP1 is involved in the repression of LRP1 via histone deacetylation.O.I.H.G.
XAt5g14170831267CHC1CHC1 is predicted to encode a protein that belongs to the chromodomain remodeling complex. Two RNAi knock-down lines have a dwarf phenotype and reduced rates of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The low rate of root-mediated transformation rate may result from altered root morphology or reduced root growth rates.O.I.H.G.
XAt5g16780831541DOT2 (DEFECTIVELY ORGANIZED TRIBUTARIES 2)Encodes a protein belonging to SART-1 family. The gene is expressed in the basal region of the developing embryo during heart stage. Phenotypic analyses of dot2 mutants suggest that this protein plays a role in root, shoot, and flower development. dot2 mutants are dwarved plants that display an aberrant spurred leaf venation pattern and fail to flower. In the roots DOT2 appears to be require for normal meristem organization and maintenance and the proper expression of PIN and PLT genes.O.I.H.G.
XAt5g17400831606ER-ANT1 (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM-DENINE NUCLEOTIDE TRANSPORTER 1)This gene is predicted to encode an ER-localized adenine nucleotide transporter with six putative transmembrane helices. It appears to act as a ATP:ADP antiporter when expressed in E.coli plasma membranes. Transcript levels for several ER-localized chaperones (e.g. BIP1/2) and other ATP-requiring ER proteins (e.g. CPK2) are reduced in er-ant1 knock-out lines, suggesting a lack of adequate ATP transport into the ER in these mutants. They also have reduced seed oil and seed protein levels.O.I.H.G.
XAt5g17690831635TFL2 (TERMINAL FLOWER 2)Regulates the meristem response to light signals and the maintenance of inflorescence meristem identity. Influences developmental processes controlled by APETALA1. TFL2 silences specific genes within euchromatin but not genes positioned in heterochromatin. TFL2 protein localized preferentially to euchromatic regions and not to heterochromatic chromocenters. Involved in euchromatin organization. Required for epigenetic maintenance of the vernalized state.O.I.H.G.
XAt5g20520832174WAV2 (WAVY GROWTH 2)Encodes a Bem46-like protein. WAV2 negatively regulates root bending when roots alter their growth direction. It's not involved in sensing environmental stimuli (e.g. gravity, light, water, touch).O.I.H.G.
XAt5g24630832534BIN4 (brassinosteroid-insensitive4)This gene is predicted to encode a protein that forms part of the topoisomerase VI complex. BIN4 is a nuclear-localized protein that can bind DNA. bin4 mutants are brassinolide-insensitive dwarves with severely reduced cell size in leaves, roots, and hypocotyls. Proper development of root hairs and trichomes is also disrupted in bin4 mutants and they have elevated levels of double strand breaks in their cotyledon cells.O.I.H.G.
XAt5g45710834610RHA1 (ROOT HANDEDNESS 1)member of Heat Stress Transcription Factor (Hsf) familyO.I.H.G.
XAt5g47990834850CYP705A5encodes a member of the CYP705A family of cytochrome P450 enzymes. It appears to catalyze the addition of a double bond to thalian-diol at carbon 15. Reduced levels of THAD expression lead to a build up of thalian-diol in root extracts. thad1-1 mutants also have longer roots than wild type seedlings.O.I.H.G.
XAt5g48000834851CYP708A2Encodes a member of the CYP708A family of cytochrome P450 enzymes. THAH appears to add a hydroxyl group to the triterpene thalianol. thah1 mutants have an elevated accumulation of thalianol. thah1-1 mutants have longer roots than wild type plants. Thalian-diol and desaturated thalian-diol are lost from the root extracts of thah1-1 mutants. Overexpression of the sequence from At5g48000.1 rescues the thah1-1 mutant phenotype (Field 2008); it is unknown whether the shorter sequences associated with other gene models would provide functional complementation.O.I.H.G.
XAt5g48010834852THAS1 (THALIANOL SYNTHASE 1)Encodes an oxidosqualene cyclase involved in the biosynthesis of thalianol, a tricyclic triterpenoid of unknown function. Overexpression of THAS leads to dwarfing in the aerial tissues of Arabidopsis plants, but increases their root length. THAS is part of a small operon-like cluster of genes (with At5g48000 (THAH) and At5g47990 (THAD)) involved in thalianol metabolism.O.I.H.G.
XAt5g58270835939STA1 (STARIK 1)Encodes a mitochondrial half-molecule ABC transporter, a member of ATM subfamily. Mutants are dwarfed, chlorotic plants with altered leaf morphology. ATM3 transcription is induced by Cd(II) or Pb(II). Involved in heavy metal resistance.O.I.H.G.
XAt5g58710835985ROC7Encodes cyclophilin ROC7.O.I.H.G.
XAt5g59030836020COPT1 (copper transporter 1)encodes a putative copper transport protein that contains copper-binding motif and functionally complements in copper-transport defective yeast strainsO.I.H.G.
XAt5g63770836497ATDGK2 (Diacylglycerol kinase 2)a member of the diacylglycerol kinase gene family. Encodes a functional diacylglycerol kinase. Involved in root elongation and plant development. Gene expression is induced by wounding or cold.O.I.H.G.
SAt5g66700836803HB53Encodes a homeodomain protein. Member of HD-ZIP 1 family, most closely related to HB5. AtHB53 is auxin-inducible and its induction is inhibited by cytokinin, especially in roots therefore may be involved in root development.O.I.H.G.



The upper GO terms

Process ID Gene number Process name
GO:00226220The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the root system over time, from its formation to the mature structure.
GO:00485134Development of a tissue or tissues that work together to perform a specific function or functions. Development pertains to the process whose specific outcome is the progression of a structure over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Organs are commonly observed as visibly distinct structures, but may also exist as loosely associated clusters of cells that work together to perform a specific function or functions.



The lower GO terms

Process ID Gene number Process name
GO:00100156The process by which the anatomical structures of roots are generated and organized. Morphogenesis pertains to the creation of form. The root is the usually underground part of a seed plant body that originates from the hypocotyl, functions as an organ of absorption, aeration, and food storage or as a means of anchorage and support.
GO:00104490The increase in size or mass of a root meristem, a population of undifferentiated cells in a plant root which maintains a continuous balance between the production of stem cells and the incorporation of their derivatives into the growth of the root.
GO:00104791The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the stele over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The stele is the central column of primary vascular tissue in the root and any tissue that it surrounds.
GO:004852723The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the lateral root over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A lateral root is one formed from pericycle cells located on the xylem radius of the root, as opposed to the initiation of the main root from the embryo proper.
GO:00488297The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the root cap over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The root cap protects the root meristem from friction as the root grows through the soil. The cap is made up of a group of parenchyma cells which secrete a glycoprotein mucilage as a lubricant.
GO:00488304The process whose specific outcome is the progression of adventitious root over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Adventitious roots are post-embryonic roots that develop from the plant shoot.
GO:008002213The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the primary root over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The primary root develops directly from the embryonic radicle.
GO:00900570The radial pattern formation process that results in the formation of the different tissues of the root around its radial axis.





Comparison with co-expressed genes



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