Encodes a metacaspase (cysteine-type endopeptidase) that is involved in promoting programmed cell death in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), UV light, and methyl viologen (MV). Transcript levels rise in response to UV-C, H2O2, and MV. In vitro assays demonstrate that this enzyme has a preference for cleaving after an arginine residue, and it has a pH optimum of 8.0.
EGY3 (ETHYLENE-DEPENDENT GRAVITROPISM-DEFICIENT AND YELLOW-GREEN-LIKE 3)
S2P-like putative metalloprotease, also contain transmembrane helices near their C-termini and many of them, five of seven, contain a conserved zinc-binding motif HEXXH. Homolog of EGY1. Each of the EGY1 and EGY-like proteins share two additional highly conserved motifs, the previously reported NPDG motif (aa 442–454 in EGY1, Rudner et al., 1999) and a newly defined GNLR motif (aa 171–179 in EGY1). The GNLR motif is a novel signature motif unique to EGY1 and EGY-like proteins as well as other EGY1 orthologs found in cyanobacteria.
Together with CONSTANTS (CO) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), GIGANTEA promotes flowering under long days in a circadian clock-controlled flowering pathway. GI acts earlier than CO and FT in the pathway by increasing CO and FT mRNA abundance. Located in the nucleus. Regulates several developmental processes, including photoperiod-mediated flowering, phytochrome B signaling, circadian clock, carbohydrate metabolism, and cold stress response. The gene's transcription is controlled by the circadian clock and it is post-transcriptionally regulated by light and dark. Forms a complex with FKF1 on the CO promoter to regulate CO expression.
Encodes a protein belonging to the (ADP-ribosyl)transferase domain-containing subfamily of WWE protein-protein interaction domain protein family. Superoxide radicals are necessary and sufficient to propagate cell death or lesion formation in rcd1 mutants. Without stress treatment, RCD1 is localized in the nucleus. Under high salt or oxidative stress, RCD1 is found not only in the nucleus but also in the cytoplasm.
ATHSP101 (ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 101)
Encodes ClpB1, which belongs to the Casein lytic proteinase/heat shock protein 100 (Clp/Hsp100) family. Involved in refolding of proteins which form aggregates under heat stress. Also known as AtHsp101. AtHsp101 is a cytosolic heat shock protein required for acclimation to high temperature.
Encodes a plasma membrane-localized Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1. Functions in the extrusion of toxic Na+ from cells and is essential for plant salt tolerance. Has 12 predicted transmembrane domains in the N-terminal region and a long cytoplasmic tail of approx. 700 aa at the C-terminal side. SOS1 interacts through its predicted cytoplasmic tail with RCD1, a regulator of oxidative-stress responses, suggesting that SOS1 might function in oxidative-stress tolerance.
** Referred to as MIPS1 in Mitsuhashi et al 2008. Myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase isoform 2. Expressed in leaf, root and silique. Immunolocaliazation experiments with an antibody recognizing MIPS1, MIPS2, and MIPS3 showed endosperm localization.
Encodes a MAP kinase induced by pathogens, ethylene biosynthesis, oxidative stress and osmotic stress.Also involved in ovule development. Homozygous mutants in a MPK3 heterozygous background are female sterile due to defects in integument development.
A member of Arabidopsis BAG (Bcl-2-associated athanogene) proteins, plant homologs of mammalian regulators of apoptosis. Expression of BAG6 in leaves was strongly induced by heat stress. Knockout mutants exhibited enhanced susceptibility to fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Plant BAG proteins are multi-functional and remarkably similar to their animal counterparts, as they regulate apoptotic-like processes ranging from pathogen attack, to abiotic stress, to plant development.
Encodes AtFH, a frataxin homolog. Frataxin is required for the biogenesis of mitochondria in different organisms. AtFH knock-out mutants are lethal. Required for full activity of mitochondrial Fe-S proteins. Deficiency of AtFH induces oxidative stress.
Encodes a ferretin protein that is targeted to the chloroplast. Member of a Ferritin gene family. Gene expression is induced in response to iron overload and by nitric oxide. Expression of the gene is downregulated in the presence of paraquat, an inducer of photoxidative stress.
Encodes a transcription factor that specifically binds to DRE/CRT cis elements (responsive to drought and low-temperature stress). Belongs to the DREB subfamily A-2 of ERF/AP2 transcription factor family (DREB2A). There are eight members in this subfamily including DREB2B. The protein contains one AP2 domain. Overexpression of transcriptional activation domain of DREB2A resulted in significant drought stress tolerance but only slight freezing tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Microarray and RNA gel blot analyses revealed that DREB2A regulates expression of many water stress–inducible genes.
Encodes a protein with 40% similarity to calmodulin. Binds Ca(2+) and, as a consequence, undergoes conformational changes. CML24 expression occurs in all major organs, and transcript levels are increased from 2- to 15-fold in plants subjected to touch, darkness, heat, cold, hydrogen peroxide, abscisic acid (ABA), and indole-3-acetic acid. However, CML24 protein accumulation changes were not detectable. The putative CML24 regulatory region confers reporter expression at sites of predicted mechanical stress; in regions undergoing growth; in vascular tissues and various floral organs; and in stomata, trichomes, and hydathodes. CML24-underexpressing transgenics are resistant to ABA inhibition of germination and seedling growth, are defective in long-day induction of flowering, and have enhanced tolerance to CoCl(2), molybdic acid, ZnSO(4), and MgCl(2).
encodes a cytosolic thioredoxin that reduces disulfide bridges of target proteins by the reversible formation of a disulfide bridge between two neighboring Cys residues present in the active site. Thioredoxins have been found to regulate a variety of biological reactions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Maintains intracellular dNTP levels except ATP. Plays a role in response to oxidative stress and UV. Involved in phytochrome-mediated light signaling. Participates in auxin-regulated processes, partly through the modulation of auxin transport. H-bonding with His-197 inside the nucleotide-binding pocket is critical for NDPK2 functioning.
A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a reactive oxygen species stimulus. Reactive oxygen species include singlet oxygen, superoxide, and oxygen free radicals.