The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of chlorophyll, any compound of magnesium complexed in a porphyrin (tetrapyrrole) ring and which functions as a photosynthetic pigment, from less complex precursors.
Click Gene ID to show a list of co-expressed genes.
One of the three genes encoding subunit A of the trimeric protein ATP Citrate Lyase. Antisense ACLA-1 plants cause a reduction in cytosolic acetyl-CoA metabolism and have upregulation of stress-related genes and down-regulation of primary metabolism and growth genes, suggesting the mutation restricts normal growth and developmental processes and puts the plant into a state of stress.
Encodes chlorophyllide a oxygenase which converts chlorophyllide a to chlorophyllide b by catalyzing two successive hydroxylations at the 7-methyl group of chlorophyllide a . Mutants are deficient in pigments that associate with thylakoid membrane proteins, lacking chlorophyll b and light-harvesting proteins of photosystem II. The protein was shown through cross-linking experiments to interact with Toc75, Toc34, Tic40, Tic20 and Tic22.
Encodes a protein with glutamyl-tRNA reductase (GluTR) activity, catalyzing the NADPH-dependent reduction of Glu-tRNA(Glu) to glutamate 1-semialdehyde (GSA) with the release of free tRNA(Glu). It is involved in the early steps of chlorophyll biosynthesis.
Encodes a protein with 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase activity. The protein's activity was confirmed by heterologous expression of phenotypic complementation of the E. coli ispF mutant. Plants defective in this gene display an albino lethal phenotype.Homolog of E. coli IspF
Encodes for a multifunctional protein with geranylgeranyl reductase activity shown to catalyze the reduction of prenylated geranylgeranyl-chlorophyll a to phytyl-chlorophyll a (chlorophyll a) and free geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to phytyl pyrophosphate.
Encodes a novel Myc-related bHLH transcription factor that has transcriptional activation activity in the dark. It is a key negative regulator of phytochrome-mediated seed germination and acts by inhibiting chlorophyll biosynthesis, light-mediated suppression of hypocotyl elongation and far-red light-mediated suppression of seed germination, and promoting negative gravitropism in hypocotyls. Light reduces this activity in a phy-dependent manner. The protein preferentially interacts with the Pfr forms of Phytochrome A (PhyA) and Phytochrome B (PhyB), is physically associated with APRR1/TOC1 and is degraded in red (R) and far-red (FR) light through the ubiquitin (ub)-26S proteasome pathway to optimize photomorphogenic development in Arabidopsis. It also negatively regulates GA3 oxidase expression.
Mutants impaired in the expression of this gene have been selected through their resistance to fosmidomycin, a strong inhibitor of DXR, an enzyme of the methylerythritol-dependent IPP biosynthesis pathway. The pathway enzymes were upregulated in the mutant seedlings.
Encodes a novel coiled-coil, TPR domain containing protein that is localized to the chloroplast membrane and is involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Mutants accumulate protochlorophyllide, an intermediate in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway, in dark and release singlet oxygen in plastids in a controlled and non-invasive manner upon a dark/light shift.
CHLM (magnesium-protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase)
Encodes a protein with methyltransferase activity responsible for the methylation of magnesium protoporphyrin IX. Mutants defective in this gene are affected in chlorophyll biosynthesis and show a reduction in the accumulation of a number of major thylakoid-associated proteins including components of PSI (LHCI), PSII (LHCII, D1, CP43) and the cytochrome b6f complex (Cytf). By contrast, no significant changes were detected for the proteins of the stroma and the chloroplast envelope.
encodes a second Chl I gene (CHLI2), a subunit of magnesium chelatase which is required for chlorophyll biosynthesis. Has ATPase activity, regulated by TRX-f. Involved in the assembly of the Mg chelatase complex.
Encodes a protein with chlorophyll synthase activity. This enzyme has been shown to perform the esterification of chlorophyllide (a and b), the last step of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Although it can use either geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) or phytyl pyrophosphate (PhyPP) as substrates, the esterification reaction was faster with GGPP than with PhyPP.
GUN, genomes uncoupled, is necessary for coupling the expression of some nuclear genes to the functional state of the chloroplast. Binds to the magnesium chelatase complex and promotes formation of the substrate,a tetrapyrrole signaling molecule. Porphyrin-binding protein that enhances the activity of Mg-chelatase. Although required for chlorophyll accumulation under normal growth conditions, GUN4 is not essential for chlorophyll synthesis.
Encodes the CHLI subunit of magnesium chelatase which is required for chlorophyll biosynthesis. All four cysteine residues of the protein form two disulfide bonds (Cys102-Cys193 and Cys354-Cys396) under oxidized conditions but are fully reduced by reduction. It was suggested that the redox state of CHLI is regulated in vivo by the change of the redox environment in the chloroplasts probably via the Trx system.
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of any member of a large group of derivatives or analogs of porphyrin. Porphyrin consists of a ring of four pyrrole nuclei linked each to the next at their alpha positions through a methine group.
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a bacteriochlorophyll, any of the chlorophylls of photosynthetic bacteria. They differ structurally from the chlorophylls of higher plants.