Biological process to genes

Query process ID GO:0008219
Process name The specific activation or halting of processes within a cell so that its vital functions markedly cease, rather than simply deteriorating gradually over time, which culminates in cell death.
Organism Arabidopsis thaliana

Click Gene ID to show a list of co-expressed genes.

ECC Gene ID Repr. ID Gene name Functional description O.I. H.G. Other DB
XAt1g08720837393EDR1 (ENHANCED DISEASE RESISTANCE 1)enhanced disease resistance 1 (EDR1) confers resistance to powdery mildew disease caused by the fungus Erysiphe cichoracearumO.I.H.G.
XAt1g29690839846CAD1 (constitutively activated cell death 1)Encodes a protein containing a domain with significant homology to the MACPF (membrane attack complex and perforin) domain of complements and perforin proteins that are involved in innate immunity in animals. Transgenic cad1-1 mutant plants show lesions seen in the hypersensitive response, as well as a spontaneous activation of expression of pathogenesis-related genes and leading to a 32-fold increase in salicylic acid (SA). CAD1 is postulated to act as a negative regulator controlling SA-mediated pathway of programmed cell death in plant immunity.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g55490841996CPN60B (CHAPERONIN 60 BETA)encodes the beta subunit of the chloroplast chaperonin 60, a homologue of bacterial GroEL. Mutants in this gene develops lesions on its leaves, expresses systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and develops accelerated cell death to heat shock stress. The protein has molecular chaperone activity for suppressing protein aggregation in vitro.O.I.H.G.
XAt1g64280842733NPR1 (NONEXPRESSER OF PR GENES 1)This gene is a key regulator of the salicylic acid (SA)-mediated systemic acquired resistance (SAR) pathway. It is similar to the transcription factor inhibitor I kappa B, and contains ankyrin repeats. It confers resistance to the pathogens Pseudomonas syringae and Peronospora parasitica in a dosage-dependent fashion. Although transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing NPR1 acquire enhanced sensitivity to SA and (benzothiadiazole) BTH, they display no obvious detrimental morphological changes and do not have elevated pathogenesis-related gene expression until activated by inducers or pathogens.O.I.H.G.
XAt2g01290814657ribose-5-phosphate isomeraseF:ribose-5-phosphate isomerase activity;P:glucose catabolic process to lactate and acetate, 5-phosphoribose 1-diphosphate biosynthetic process, reductive pentose-phosphate cycle, D-ribose catabolic process, pentose-phosphate shunt, non-oxidative branch;C:cytoplasm;BOAFMPO.I.H.G.
XAt2g13790815862SERK4 (SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE 4)F:protein binding, transmembrane receptor protein serine/threonine kinase activity, protein kinase activity;P:response to salt stress, cell death, protein amino acid phosphorylation, response to chitin;C:endomembrane system;PMOBFVAO.I.H.G.
XAt2g26300817170GP ALPHA 1 (G PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT 1)Encodes an alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein. The active GTP-bound form of GPA1 binds to the GTG1 and GTG2 abscisic acid (ABA) receptors and appears to affect their GTPase and GTP-binding activity, and hence, ABA binding abilities. GPA1 is a positive regulator in ABA-mediated inhibition of stomatal opening. Plants with recessive mutant alleles have complex phenotypes including: reduced brassinolide response, reduced cell divisions, round leaves, short hypocotyls. It is likely to be involved in the signaling events that trigger unfolded protein response-associated cell death. GPA1 is also involved in sugar signaling.O.I.H.G.
XAt2g26560817197PLA2A (PHOSPHOLIPASE A 2A)encodes a lipid acyl hydrolase with wide substrate specificity that accumulates upon infection by fungal and bacterial pathogens. Protein is localized in the cytoplasm in healthy leaves, and in membranes in infected cells.O.I.H.G.
XAt2g34690818034ACD11 (ACCELERATED CELL DEATH 11)Gene product transports the glycolipid precursor sphingosine between membranes in vitro. Mutant constitutively expresses defense-related genes that accompany the hypersensitive response normally triggered by avirulent pathogens.O.I.H.G.
XAt3g01420821135DOX1Encodes an alpha-dioxygenase involved in protection against oxidative stress and cell death. Induced in response to Salicylic acid and oxidative stress. Independent of NPR1 in induction by salicylic acid.O.I.H.G.
XAt3g16770820929ATEBP (ETHYLENE-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN)Encodes a member of the ERF (ethylene response factor) subfamily B-2 of the plant specific ERF/AP2 transcription factor family (RAP2.3). The protein contains one AP2 domain. There are 5 members in this subfamily including RAP2.2 AND RAP2.12.It is localized to the nucleus and acts as a transcriptional activator through the GCC-box. It has been identified as a suppressor of Bax-induced cell death by functional screening in yeast and can also suppress Bax-induced cell death in tobacco plants. Overexpression of this gene in tobacco BY-2 cells confers resistance to H2O2 and heat stresses. Overexpression in Arabidopsis causes upregulation of PDF1.2 and GST6. It is part of the ethylene signaling pathway and is predicted to act downstream of EIN2 and CTR1, but not under EIN3.O.I.H.G.
XAt3g44880823622ACD1 (ACCELERATED CELL DEATH 1)Encodes a pheide a oxygenase (PAO). Accelerated cell death (acd1) mutants show rapid, spreading necrotic responses to both virulent and avirulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola or pv. tomato pathogens and to ethylene.O.I.H.G.
XAt4g14400827085ACD6 (ACCELERATED CELL DEATH 6)encodes a novel protein with putative ankyrin and transmembrane regions. It is a member of one of the largest uncharacterized gene families in higher plants. The gene is involved in resistance to Pseudomonas syringae.O.I.H.G.
XAt4g20380827786zinc finger protein (LSD1)LSD1 monitors a superoxide-dependent signal and negatively regulates a plant cell death pathway. contains zinc-finger motifs. LSD1 negatively regulates a basal defense pathway that can act upstream or independently of both NIM1/NPR1 function and SA accumulation following avirulent or virulent pathogen challengeO.I.H.G.
XAt4g33430829480BAK1 (BRI1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE)Leu-rich receptor Serine/threonine protein kinase. Component of BR signaling that interacts with BRI1 in vitro and in vivo to form a heterodimer. Brassinolide-dependent association of BRI1 and BAK1 in vivo. Phosphorylation of both BRI1 and BAK1 on Thr residues was BR dependent. Although BAK1 and BRI1 alone localize in the plasma membrane, when BAK1 and BRI1 are coexpressed, the heterodimer BAK1/BRI1 they form is localized in the endosome.O.I.H.G.
XAt4g35090829661CAT2 (CATALASE 2)Encodes a peroxisomal catalase, highly expressed in bolts and leaves. mRNA expression patterns show circadian regulation with mRNA levels being high in the subjective early morning. Loss of function mutations have increased H2O2 levels and increased H2O2 sensitivity. Mutants accumulate more toxic ions yet show decreased sensitivity to Li+. This decreased sensitivity is most likely due to an insensitivity to ethylene. Note that in Queval et al. (2007) Plant Journal, 52(4):640, SALK_057998 is named as cat2-1, SALK_076998 is named as cat2-2; in Bueso et al. (2007) Plant Journal, 52(6):1052, SALK_076998 is named as cat2-1. TAIR has adopted the nomenclature consistent with that in Bueso et al. (2007) after consultation with the authors: SALK_076998 (cat2-1), SALK_057998 (cat2-2).O.I.H.G.
XAt5g23040832368CDF1 (CELL GROWTH DEFECT FACTOR 1)Cell growth defect factor 1.Causes Bax mediated lethality in yeast by generating reactive oxygen species and this effect is suppressed by AtBI-1.O.I.H.G.
XAt5g45260834562RRS1 (RESISTANT TO RALSTONIA SOLANACEARUM 1)Confers resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum. Similar to NBLS-TIR resistance genes,and also contains similarity to transcription factors. Interacts with pathogen effector protein AvrPop2.O.I.H.G.
CAt1g11000837643MLO4 (MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O 4)A member of a large family of seven-transmembrane domain proteins specific to plants, homologs of the barley mildew resistance locus o (MLO) protein. The Arabidopsis genome contains 15 genes encoding MLO proteins, with localization in plasma membrane. Phylogenetic analysis revealed four clades of closely-related AtMLO genes. ATMLO4 belongs to the clade I, with AtMLO11 and AtMLO14. The gene is expressed during early seedling growth, in roots and lateral root primordia, in flower and fruit abscission zone, in vascular system of root, cotyledons and young leaves, it was not expressed in mature rosette leaves, as shown by GUS activity patterns. The expression of several phylogenetically closely-related AtMLO genes showed similar or overlapping tissue specificity and analogous responsiveness to external stimuli, suggesting functional redundancy, co-function, or antagonistic function(s).O.I.H.G.
CAt1g11310837673MLO2 (MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O 2)A member of a large family of seven-transmembrane domain proteins specific to plants, homologs of the barley mildew resistance locus o (MLO) protein. The Arabidopsis genome contains 15 genes encoding MLO proteins, with localization in plasma membrane. Phylogenetic analysis revealed four clades of closely-related AtMLO genes. ATMLO2 belongs to the clade IV, with AtMLO3, AtMLO6 and AtMLO12. The gene is expressed during early seedling growth, in roots, in vascular system of cotyledons and young leaves,and in fruit abscission zone; it was not expressed in anthers and pollen, as shown by GUS activity patterns. The expression of several phylogenetically closely-related AtMLO genes showed similar or overlapping tissue specificity and analogous responsiveness to external stimuli, suggesting functional redundancy, co-function, or antagonistic function(s). mlo resistance in A. thaliana does not involve the signaling molecules ethylene, jasmonic acid or salicylic acid, but requires a syntaxin, glycosyl hydrolase and ABC transporter.O.I.H.G.
CAt1g26700839211MLO14 (MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O 14)A member of a large family of seven-transmembrane domain proteins specific to plants, homologs of the barley mildew resistance locus o (MLO) protein. The Arabidopsis genome contains 15 genes encoding MLO proteins, with localization in plasma membrane. Phylogenetic analysis revealed four clades of closely-related AtMLO genes. ATMLO14 belongs to the clade I, with AtMLO4 and AtMLO11. The gene is expressed during early seedling growth, in developing primary root, and particularly in root tips of 10-day old seedlings; it was not expressed in leaves or flowers, as shown by GUS activity patterns. The expression of several phylogenetically closely-related AtMLO genes showed similar or overlapping tissue specificity and analogous responsiveness to external stimuli, suggesting functional redundancy, co-function, or antagonistic function(s).O.I.H.G.
CAt1g42560840861MLO9 (MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O 9)A member of a large family of seven-transmembrane domain proteins specific to plants, homologs of the barley mildew resistance locus o (MLO) protein. The Arabidopsis genome contains 15 genes encoding MLO proteins, with localization in plasma membrane. Phylogenetic analysis revealed four clades of closely-related AtMLO genes. ATMLO9 belongs to the clade III, with AtMLO5, AtMLO7, AtMLO8, and AtMLO10. The gene is expressed during early seedling growth, in cotyledon vascular system, in flowers (with strong expression in anthers) in siliques and fruit abscission zone; not expressed in roots, or in mature rosette leaves, as shown by GUS activity patterns. The expression of several phylogenetically closely-related AtMLO genes showed similar or overlapping tissue specificity and analogous responsiveness to external stimuli, suggesting functional redundancy, co-function, or antagonistic function(s).O.I.H.G.
CAt1g61560842450MLO6 (MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O 6)A member of a large family of seven-transmembrane domain proteins specific to plants, homologs of the barley mildew resistance locus o (MLO) protein. The Arabidopsis genome contains 15 genes encoding MLO proteins, with localization in plasma membrane. Phylogenetic analysis revealed four clades of closely-related AtMLO genes. ATMLO6 belongs to the clade IV, with AtMLO2, AtMLO3 and AtMLO12. The gene is expressed during early seedling growth, in roots and lateral root primordia, in flower and fruit abscission zone, in vascular system of cotyledons, young leaves and petals, in mature rosette leaves, in anthers, as shown by GUS activity patterns. The expression of several phylogenetically closely-related AtMLO genes showed similar or overlapping tissue specificity and analogous responsiveness to external stimuli, suggesting functional redundancy, co-function, or antagonistic function(s).O.I.H.G.
CAt2g17430816249MLO7 (MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O 7)A member of a large family of seven-transmembrane domain proteins specific to plants, homologs of the barley mildew resistance locus o (MLO) protein. The Arabidopsis genome contains 15 genes encoding MLO proteins, with localization in plasma membrane. Phylogenetic analysis revealed four clades of closely-related AtMLO genes. ATMLO7 belongs to the clade III, with AtMLO5, AtMLO8, AtMLO9, and AtMLO10. The gene is expressed in vegetative organs (RT-PCR experiments)and in pollen grains, as shown by GUS activity patterns. The expression of several phylogenetically closely-related AtMLO genes showed similar or overlapping tissue specificity and analogous responsiveness to external stimuli, suggesting functional redundancy, co-function, or antagonistic function(s).O.I.H.G.
CAt2g17480816254MLO8 (MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O 8)A member of a large family of seven-transmembrane domain proteins specific to plants, homologs of the barley mildew resistance locus o (MLO) protein. The Arabidopsis genome contains 15 genes encoding MLO proteins, with localization in plasma membrane. Phylogenetic analysis revealed four clades of closely-related AtMLO genes. ATMLO8 belongs to the clade III, with AtMLO5, AtMLO7, AtMLO9, and AtMLO10. The gene is expressed during seedling growth, in cotyledons and hypocotyl, and in fruit abscission zone, as shown by GUS activity patterns. The expression of several phylogenetically closely-related AtMLO genes showed similar or overlapping tissue specificity and analogous responsiveness to external stimuli, suggesting functional redundancy, co-function, or antagonistic function(s).O.I.H.G.
CAt2g33670817932MLO5 (MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O 5)A member of a large family of seven-transmembrane domain proteins specific to plants, homologs of the barley mildew resistance locus o (MLO) protein. The Arabidopsis genome contains 15 genes encoding MLO proteins, with localization in plasma membrane. Phylogenetic analysis revealed four clades of closely-related AtMLO genes. ATMLO5 belongs to the clade III, with AtMLO7, AtMLO8, AtMLO9, and AtMLO10. The gene is expressed during seedling growth, in cotyledon vascular system, and in stigma, anther and pollen grains; it was not expressed in rosette leaves, as shown by GUS activity patterns. The expression of several phylogenetically closely-related AtMLO genes showed similar or overlapping tissue specificity and analogous responsiveness to external stimuli, suggesting functional redundancy, co-function, or antagonistic function(s).O.I.H.G.
CAt2g39200818505MLO12 (MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O 12)A member of a large family of seven-transmembrane domain proteins specific to plants, homologs of the barley mildew resistance locus o (MLO) protein. The Arabidopsis genome contains 15 genes encoding MLO proteins, with localization in plasma membrane. Phylogenetic analysis revealed four clades of closely-related AtMLO genes. ATMLO6 belongs to the clade IV, with AtMLO2, AtMLO3 and AtMLO12. The gene is expressed during early seedling growth, in root tips and cotyledon vascular system, in floral organs (anthers and stigma), and in fruit abscission zone, as shown by GUS activity patterns. The expression of several phylogenetically closely-related AtMLO genes showed similar or overlapping tissue specificity and analogous responsiveness to external stimuli, suggesting functional redundancy, co-function, or antagonistic function(s).O.I.H.G.
CAt2g44110819017MLO15 (MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O 15)A member of a large family of seven-transmembrane domain proteins specific to plants, homologs of the barley mildew resistance locus o (MLO) protein. The Arabidopsis genome contains 15 genes encoding MLO proteins, with localization in plasma membrane. Phylogenetic analysis revealed four clades of closely-related AtMLO genes. ATMLO15 belongs to the clade II, with ATMLO13 and ATMLO15. The gene is expressed during early seedling growth, in root tips and flower (papillae, anthers and pollen grains), as shown by GUS activity patterns. The expression of several phylogenetically closely-related AtMLO genes showed similar or overlapping tissue specificity and analogous responsiveness to external stimuli, suggesting functional redundancy, co-function, or antagonistic function(s).O.I.H.G.
CAt3g45290823667MLO3 (MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O 3)A member of a large family of seven-transmembrane domain proteins specific to plants, homologs of the barley mildew resistance locus o (MLO) protein. The Arabidopsis genome contains 15 genes encoding MLO proteins, with localization in plasma membrane. Phylogenetic analysis revealed four clades of closely-related AtMLO genes. ATMLO3 belongs to the clade IV, with AtMLO2, AtMLO6 and AtMLO12. The gene is expressed during early seedling growth, in primary root and lateral root primordia, in fruit abscission zone, in vascular system of cotyledons and in trichomes of young leaves,; it was not expressed in mature rosette leaves, as shown by GUS activity patterns. The expression of several phylogenetically closely-related AtMLO genes showed similar or overlapping tissue specificity and analogous responsiveness to external stimuli, suggesting functional redundancy, co-function, or antagonistic function(s).O.I.H.G.
CAt4g02600828229MLO1A member of a large family of seven-transmembrane domain proteins specific to plants, homologs of the barley mildew resistance locus o (MLO) protein. The Arabidopsis genome contains 15 genes encoding MLO proteins, with localization in plasma membrane. Phylogenetic analysis revealed four clades of closely-related AtMLO genes. ATMLO1 belongs to the clade II, with ATMLO13 and ATMLO15. The gene is expressed during early seedling growth, in root and cotyledon vascular system, in pollen and in papillae, as shown by GUS activity patterns. The expression of several phylogenetically closely-related AtMLO genes showed similar or overlapping tissue specificity and analogous responsiveness to external stimuli, suggesting functional redundancy, co-function, or antagonistic function(s).O.I.H.G.
CAt4g24250828526MLO13 (MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O 13)A member of a large family of seven-transmembrane domain proteins specific to plants, homologs of the barley mildew resistance locus o (MLO) protein. The Arabidopsis genome contains 15 genes encoding MLO proteins, with localization in plasma membrane. Phylogenetic analysis revealed four clades of closely-related AtMLO genes. ATMLO13 belongs to the clade II, with ATMLO1 and ATMLO15. The gene is expressed during early seedling growth, in root and cotyledon vascular system, in pollen and also in placenta of developing siliques, as shown by GUS activity patterns. The expression of several phylogenetically closely-related AtMLO genes showed similar or overlapping tissue specificity and analogous responsiveness to external stimuli, suggesting functional redundancy, co-function, or antagonistic function(s).O.I.H.G.
CAt5g53760835457MLO11 (MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O 11)A member of a large family of seven-transmembrane domain proteins specific to plants, homologs of the barley mildew resistance locus o (MLO) protein. The Arabidopsis genome contains 15 genes encoding MLO proteins, with localization in plasma membrane. Phylogenetic analysis revealed four clades of closely-related AtMLO genes. ATMLO11 belongs to the clade I, with AtMLO4 and AtMLO14. The gene is expressed during early seedling growth (in primary root), in root tips and lateral root primordia, and in very young leaves, and in flowers and fruit abscission zone, as shown by GUS activity patterns. The expression of several phylogenetically closely-related AtMLO genes showed similar or overlapping tissue specificity and analogous responsiveness to external stimuli, suggesting functional redundancy, co-function, or antagonistic function(s).O.I.H.G.
CAt5g65970836727MLO10 (MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O 10)A member of a large family of seven-transmembrane domain proteins specific to plants, homologs of the barley mildew resistance locus o (MLO) protein. The Arabidopsis genome contains 15 genes encoding MLO proteins, with localization in plasma membrane. Phylogenetic analysis revealed four clades of closely-related AtMLO genes. ATMLO10 belongs to the clade III, with AtMLO5, AtMLO7, AtMLO8, and AtMLO9. The gene is expressed in root and cotyledon vascular system, in root-shoot junction and lateral root primordia and in developing siliques, as shown by GUS activity patterns. The expression of several phylogenetically closely-related AtMLO genes showed similar or overlapping tissue specificity and analogous responsiveness to external stimuli, suggesting functional redundancy, co-function, or antagonistic function(sO.I.H.G.
NAt5g03280831889EIN2 (ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 2)Involved in ethylene signal transduction. Acts downstream of CTR1. Positively regulates ORE1 and negatively regulates mir164A,B,C to regulate leaf senescence.O.I.H.G.



The upper GO terms

Process ID Gene number Process name
GO:00099875Any process that is carried out at the cellular level, but not necessarily restricted to a single cell. For example, cell communication occurs among more than one cell, but occurs at the cellular level.
GO:00162650A permanent cessation of all vital functions: the end of life; can be applied to a whole organism or to a part of an organism.



The lower GO terms

Process ID Gene number Process name
GO:00125019Cell death resulting from activation of endogenous cellular processes.
GO:00198350The rupture of cell membranes and the loss of cytoplasm.
GO:00702650A cell death process that is morphologically characterized by a gain in cell volume (oncosis), swelling of organelles, plasma membrane rupture and subsequent loss of intracellular contents.





Comparison with co-expressed genes



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