The gene encodes a gamma-glutamyltransferase (AKA gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, EC 18.104.22.168) that is located in vascular tissues (predominantly phloem) of leaves and is involved in the degradation of glutathione. The encoded enzyme also mitigates oxidative stress by metabolizing GSSG (oxidized form of GSH - glutathione) in the apoplast.
Encodes a protein containing a domain with significant homology to the MACPF (membrane attack complex and perforin) domain of complements and perforin proteins that are involved in innate immunity in animals. Transgenic cad1-1 mutant plants show lesions seen in the hypersensitive response, as well as a spontaneous activation of expression of pathogenesis-related genes and leading to a 32-fold increase in salicylic acid (SA). CAD1 is postulated to act as a negative regulator controlling SA-mediated pathway of programmed cell death in plant immunity.
This gene is predicted to encode a protein involved in negatively regulating salicylic acid-related defense responses and cell death programs. nsl1 mutants develop necrotic lesions spontaneously and show other features of a defense response, such as higher levels of SA and disease resistance-related transcripts, in the absence of a biotic stimulus. The NSL1 protein is predicted to have a MACPF domain, found in proteins that form a transmembrane pore in mammalian immune responses. NSL1 transcript levels do not appear to change in response to biotic stresses, but are elevated by cycloheximide in seedlings, and by sodium chloride in roots.
The gene encodes a gamma-glutamyltransferase (AKA gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, EC 22.214.171.124) that is located in the apoplast of young siliques (within the ovules of the carpel) and is involved in the degradation of glutathione. The encoded enzyme also acts as part of a GSH pumping gamma-glutamyl cycle in this tissue and may also be involved in gamma-glutamyl amino acid formation.
The gene encodes a gamma-glutamyltransferase (AKA gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, EC 126.96.36.199) that is located in the vacuole and is most active in roots. The encoded enzyme is involved in the initial degradation of glutathione conjugates in this cell compartment. It is also induced by xenobiotics and contributes to xenobiotics metabolism.
HIRA (Arabidopsis homolog of histone chaperone HIRA)
Encodes a nuclear localized WD-repeat containing protein involved in negative regulation of knox gene expression via epigenetic mechanism of chromatin re-organization. Interacts physically and genetically with AS1. Expressed in meristem and leaf primordia. Homozygous mutants are embryo lethal. Phenotype of cosuppressed lines is variable but show effects on leaf development similar to as1/as2.
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of glutathione, the tripeptide glutamylcysteinylglycine, which acts as a coenzyme for some enzymes and as an antioxidant in the protection of sulfhydryl groups in enzymes and other proteins.
A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of oxidative stress, a state often resulting from exposure to high levels of reactive oxygen species, e.g. superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals.