Encodes the Arabidopsis INO80 ortholog of the SWI/SNF ATPase family. Functions as a positive regulator of DNA homologous recombination (HR). In INO80 mutants, the HR frequency is reduced to 15% of that in the wild-type. Mutation in INO80 does not affect sensitivity to genotoxic agents and efficiency of T-DNA integration. INO80 was also shown to regulate a subset of the Arabidopsis transcriptome.
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Encodes a cell division cycle protein, a member of AAA-type ATPases gene family. Expressed throughout the plant in regions of cell division. Within the cell, sub-cellular localization varies depending on the stage of the cell cycle.Mutants in which the expression of CDC48A is altered show defects in cytokinesis, cell expansion and cell differentiation.
Protein is similar to SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling proteins. DDM1 is appears to act as a chromatin-remodeling ATPase involved in cytosine methylation in CG and non-CG contexts. Involved in gene silencing and maintenance of DNA methylation and histone methylation. Hypomethylation of many genomic regions occurs in ddm1 mutants, and can cause several phenotypic abnormalities, but some loci, such as BONSAI (At1g73177) can be hypermethylated in ddm1 mutants after several generations, leading to different phenotypes. DDM1 might be involved in establishing a heterochromain boundary. A line expressing an RNAi targeted against DDM1 shows some resistance to agrobacterium-mediated root transformation.
Encodes a SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling protein belonging to the ISWI family. Involved in nuclear proliferation during megagametogenesis and cell expansion in the sporophyte. Constitutively expressed. RNAi induced loss of function in megagametogenesis results in female sterility.35S:RNAi plants have reduced stature.