This gene is predicted to encode a protein involved in negatively regulating salicylic acid-related defense responses and cell death programs. nsl1 mutants develop necrotic lesions spontaneously and show other features of a defense response, such as higher levels of SA and disease resistance-related transcripts, in the absence of a biotic stimulus. The NSL1 protein is predicted to have a MACPF domain, found in proteins that form a transmembrane pore in mammalian immune responses. NSL1 transcript levels do not appear to change in response to biotic stresses, but are elevated by cycloheximide in seedlings, and by sodium chloride in roots.
The gene encodes a gamma-glutamyltransferase (AKA gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, EC 22.214.171.124) that is located in vascular tissues (predominantly phloem) of leaves and is involved in the degradation of glutathione. The encoded enzyme also mitigates oxidative stress by metabolizing GSSG (oxidized form of GSH - glutathione) in the apoplast.
Encodes a protein containing a domain with significant homology to the MACPF (membrane attack complex and perforin) domain of complements and perforin proteins that are involved in innate immunity in animals. Transgenic cad1-1 mutant plants show lesions seen in the hypersensitive response, as well as a spontaneous activation of expression of pathogenesis-related genes and leading to a 32-fold increase in salicylic acid (SA). CAD1 is postulated to act as a negative regulator controlling SA-mediated pathway of programmed cell death in plant immunity.
ATMPK3 (ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3)
Encodes a mitogen-activated kinase whose mRNA levels increase in response to touch, cold, salinity stress and chitin oligomers.Also functions in ovule development. Heterozygous MPK3 mutants in a homozygous MPK6 background are female sterile due to defects in integument development. MPK3 can be dephosphorylated by MKP2 in vitro.